Dumping an entire Elasticsearch index to csv with eland

With the 8.11.0 release of the Python package eland it got a lot easier to dump an Elasticsearch index to csv. All the code you need is this:

import eland

eland.DataFrame('http://localhost:9200', 'your-index').to_csv('your-csv.csv')

Before the 8.11.0 release, this method already existed in eland, but it needed as much memory as the size of your dataset. Now it streams the data batch-wise into a csv. Most of the code to achieve this was written by @V1NAY8. I only did some minor edits to get it to pass the pull request review.

While testing this eland successfully dumped hundreds of gigabytes of data without any issues, all without having to bother with scroll requests myself.

Advent of Code 2022 - Day 9 - part 1

To get ready for Advent of Code 2023, I continued where I stopped last year: day 9.

Here’s me struggling for 1 hour and 40 minutes spread across two days, because I tried to be clever. For viewing pleasure it has been sped up.

What goes wrong here is that I assumed incorrectly that a negative number to the power of zero would be -1. Quick maths turned out not to be good maths. The following bit of experimentation led me to believe that.

result = -5 ** 0  
assert result == -1

You may have already guessed that the order of operation fooled me. The ** operator is executed before the - operator is applied to the result. The behaviour is different if I do the same using a variable:

x = -5
result = x ** 0
assert result == 1

The solution that eventually led to the correct answer is in the code block below. After submitting the correct answer, I did some cleanup:

  • deleted some unreachable code
  • linted it
  • removed some debug lines
  • and added some more comments
  • deleted the x ** 0 and y ** 0 since they are pointless now.
from advent_of_code import *
import requests_cache


test_input = """R 4
U 4
L 3
D 1
R 4
D 1
L 5
R 2"""
input_9 = fetch_input(9)
# input_9 = test_input
movements = [x.split(' ') for x in input_9.splitlines()]
movements = [(x[0], int(x[1])) for x in movements]
visited = set()
head = (0, 0)
tail = (0, 0)

directions = {
# What coordinates change for each movement
#         x, y
    "U": (1, 0),
    "D": (-1, 0),
    "L": (0, -1),
    "R": (0, 1),

def modify_location(location, direction):
    if isinstance(direction, str):
        change = directions[direction]
        change = direction
    return location[0] + change[0], location[1] + change[1]

def direction_to_move(head, tail):
    x = head[0] - tail[0]
    y = head[1] - tail[1]
    # head and tail are at the same location, don't move
    if x == 0 and y == 0:  
        return 0, 0
    # head and tail are less than one square apart (including diagonally)
    elif max(abs(x), abs(y)) == 1:  
        return 0, 0
    # head and tail are too far apart, decide which direction to move the tail
        if x < 0:
            x = x ** 0 * -1
            x = 0 if not x else 1
        if y < 0:
            y = -1
            y = 0 if not y else 1
        return x, y

tail_visited = set()
for direction, length in movements:
    for _ in range(length):
        head = modify_location(head, direction)
        tail = modify_location(tail, direction_to_move(head, tail))
        # keep track of where the tail has been:

submit_answer(level=1, day=9, answer=len(tail_visited))

The lessons I learned: Don’t try to be clever and check your maths.

No more 429: Combining ratelimit and requests_cache

requests_cache is nice. ratelimit is nice. But they don’t play nicely together yet: If a request is coming from the cache that requests_cache maintains, ratelimit doesn’t “know that” and will still slow your script down for no reason. That’s why I published the ratelimit_requests_cache module. It offers a similar rate limiter to the ratelimit module, but invocations only count towards the rate limit if the request could not be served from the cache.

The usage is the same as the normal ratelimit package. You decorate a method with the sleep_and_retry and a limiting decorator, in this case the limits_if_not_cached:

import requests
import requests_cache
from ratelimit import sleep_and_retry
from ratelimit_requests_cache import limits_if_not_cached

@limits_if_not_cached(calls=1, period=1)
def get_from_httpbin(i):
    return requests.get(f'https://httpbin.org/anything?i={i}')

# Enable requests caching

# Notice that only the first ten requests will be ratelimited to 1 request / second
# After that, it's a lot quicker since requests can be served from the cache
# and the ratelimiter does not engage
for i in range(100):
    get_from_httpbin(i % 10)

See it in action:

This rate limiter is ideal for when an API call is expensive, measured in either time or in money. HTTP requests have to be performed only once, and you can better avoid getting HTTP 429 status codes.

This rate limiter checks whether a request was served from the cache or not by checking the .from_cache attribute of the Response. That means that if you have a different caching mechanism, you could also set this .from_cache boolean attribute and use the decorator for other purposes just as easily.

To start using it, get it from PyPI:

python3 -m pip install ratelimit_requests_cache

Making mitmproxy more easily debuggable

Mitmproxy is just what it says on the tin: a proxy that can act as a man-in-the-middle. By default it will re-sign HTTPS traffic with its own root CA. It can also modify other requests in-place, using Python hooks.

In this post I show how I add a main to mitmproxy hook scripts themselves. This way both your hook and the mitmproxy invocation are contained within one file. I think a Python module without an if __name__ == '__main__' always is a bit of a missed opportunity. Even if a module is nested deep into your application, it might still be a suitable place to write some examples how to use the code in the module.

Normally, when you run a mitmproxy and want to set some hooks, you supply the script as a command line argument to the CLI tool.

mitmdump -q -s intercept.py
# or for the Command Line UI:
mitmproxy -s intercept.py

But, when running mitmproxy from the command line, you will not actually the __main__ of the mitmproxy module. The place where the CLI tool actually lives in a code base can usually be found in setup.py or pyproject.toml. There is often a parameter or section called scripts, console_scripts, or something similar, depending on the packaging tools. For mitmproxy, it was in pyproject.toml in the project.scripts section:

mitmproxy = "mitmproxy.tools.main:mitmproxy"
mitmdump = "mitmproxy.tools.main:mitmdump"
mitmweb = "mitmproxy.tools.main:mitmweb"

In the code below I import the method that contains the CLI tool. I also use the special __file__ variable present in Python. This contains the full filename of the script it’s called from.

from mitmproxy import http
from mitmproxy.tools.main import mitmdump

def websocket_message(flow: http.HTTPFlow):
    """ Hook on websocket messages """
    last_message = flow.websocket.messages[-1]

if __name__ == "__main__":
            "-q",      # quiet flag, only script's output
            "-s",      # script flag
            __file__,  # use the same file as the hook

This way of adding a main is a bit similar to what I did earlier with streamlit. That solution turned out to have some unforeseen implications: Streamlit was convinced a form was nested in itself. So, stay tuned for the trouble that this mitmproxy hack might cause later.

OpenAI's CLIP inference in C# using ONNX Runtime

CLIP is a model developed by OpenAI (back in 2021), that can create embeddings for both text and images. These embeddings exist in the same vector space and can be compared across the two modalities. Contrary to some other OpenAI models, the weights are freely available.

The official implementation released by OpenAI is in Python. I needed to calculate CLIP vectors in C# however. To make the C# implementation, I build from the work of josephrocca, who ported the model from Torch to ONNX. Although he initially ported it to be able to use it in Javascript, we can reuse these weights in C#. The nice thing about the ONNX Runtime is that it is available for many programming languages, and the models and weights are compatible.

I’m planning to create a proper library here: clip.dll. In the future there will also be support for vectorizing text in that library. However, for the time being, the implementation is just the following snippet:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.IO;
using System.Linq;
using System.Net;
using System.Text.Json;
using Microsoft.ML.OnnxRuntime;
using Microsoft.ML.OnnxRuntime.Tensors;
using SixLabors.ImageSharp;
using SixLabors.ImageSharp.Processing;
using SixLabors.ImageSharp.PixelFormats;

class CLIP {
    static void Main(string[] args) {
        // Download the model weights if we don't have them in the current directory
        if (!File.Exists("clip-image-vit-32-float32.onnx"))
            WebClient webClient = new WebClient();

        // Load the model
        // Model sourced from: https://huggingface.co/rocca/openai-clip-js/tree/main
        var clipModel = new InferenceSession("clip-image-vit-32-float32.onnx");

        // Load an image specified as a command line argument
        var image = Image.Load<Rgba32>(File.ReadAllBytes(args[0]));

        // Calculate the shortest side, and use that to extract a square from the center
        // Known in other image libraries as Centercrop
        // AFAIK Centercrop is not available in Sixlabors.ImageSharp, so we do it manually
        var smallestSide = Math.Min(image.Width, image.Height);
        image.Mutate(x => x.Crop(
            new Rectangle(
                (image.Width - smallestSide) / 2,
            (image.Height - smallestSide) / 2,

        // Resize to 224 x 224 (bicubic resizing is the default)
        image.Mutate(x => x.Resize(224, 224));

        // Create a new array for 1 picture, 3 channels (RGB) and 224 pixels height and width
        var inputTensor = new DenseTensor<float>(new[] {1, 3, 224, 224});

        // Put all the pixels in the input tensor
        for (var x = 0; x < 224; x++)
            for (var y = 0; y < 224; y++)
                // Normalize from bytes (0-255) to floats (constants borrowed from CLIP repository)
                inputTensor[0, 0, y, x] = Convert.ToSingle((((float) image[x, y].R / 255) - 0.48145466) / 0.26862954);
                inputTensor[0, 1, y, x] = Convert.ToSingle((((float) image[x, y].G / 255) - 0.4578275 ) / 0.26130258);
                inputTensor[0, 2, y, x] = Convert.ToSingle((((float) image[x, y].B / 255) - 0.40821073) / 0.27577711);

        // Prepare the inputs as a named ONNX variable, name should be "input"
        var inputs = new List<NamedOnnxValue> {NamedOnnxValue.CreateFromTensor("input", inputTensor)};

        // Run the model, and get the output back as an Array of floats
        var outputData = clipModel.Run(inputs).ToList().Last().AsTensor<float>().ToArray();

        // Write the array serialized as JSON

Updated 2024-03-29: Added cropping a square out of the center to match the reference implementation